How 5G Technology Works? & 5G Frequency Bands Explained

The word 5G is making a buzz over a previous couple of years. And even in many counties, the initial phase of the 5G deployment goes on.


And even within the last few years, many 5G smartphones have also been launched. Now, once we hear the word 5G Technology, then the primary thing which comes to our mind is high-speed internet.


But this 5G is quite just high-speed internet. So, to know that, first of all, let’s understand what’s 5G.



5G Technology stands for the fifth generation of mobile network technology. And in many aspects, it’s different from the previous generations.


Within the future, this 5G technology will provide three main sorts of services. They are

1. Fast internet

2. Web of Things

3. Low Latency Communication


Technically, these three features are referred to as enhanced mobile broadband, the huge machine-to-machine sort of communication, and ultra-reliable low latency communication.


So, as I said, this massive machine-to-machine sort of communication will enable the web of Things, where many devices are often connected together without human intervention.


And these devices are going to be ready to communicate with one another wirelessly. Aside from that, it’ll also enable the gates for smart homes and smart cities.


So, per the 5G specifications, it’ll support the connection density of 1 million devices over the 1-kilometer area. Which is 10 times quite the utmost supported capacity of the 4G network?

Then the subsequent feature is enhanced mobile broadband, that’s blazing fast internet service.


mobile 5G technology
So, as per the 5G specifications, theoretically, it’ll support the highest download speed of 20 Gbps and therefore the upload speed of 10 Gbps. And when the signal is low, or at the sting of the cell, it’ll provide the utmost speed of 100 Mbps.


So, this may enable the services which require very high bandwidth. Meaning with the blazing fast speed, the consumers are going to be ready to download the HD movies in a few seconds.


Moreover, it’ll also accelerate the adoption of augmented and virtual reality-based services. Not only that, but it’ll also accelerate the concept of cloud-based gaming.


Then subsequent technical goal or subsequent feature which 5G will provide is that low latency communication.


So, these 5G features will allow communication with a latency of as low as 1ms. So, this feature will enable real-time services which require very low latency and therefore the prompt response. Like autonomous vehicles, remote surgeries, and interactive gaming.


Apart from that, it’ll be also very helpful within the automation industries where fast machine-to-machine communication and ultra-reliable communication is extremely critical. which will avoid system failure also because of the loss of life.


So, this is often how 5G will enable the new services to the consumers with very high reliability.


Read More About mid-range mobiles vs flagship mobiles here


Now let’s mention the 5G spectrum or the 5G frequency bands.

5G Spectrum or 5G Frequency Bands:

This 5G will support the 2 frequency ranges. One frequency range is understood because of the sub 6GHz band, while the second band is understood because of the millimeter-wave band i.e., there are two 5G frequency bands

1. Sub 6 GHz band

2. Millimeter-wave band


1. Sub 6 GHz Band

Now, initially, during this first frequency range, the frequency was limited to up to 6 GHz. But afterward, it had been extended up to 7 GHz. This first waveband can further be divided into the low band and mid-band frequencies.

a. Low Band Frequency

b. Mid Band Frequency


So, these low-band frequencies contain frequencies that are but 1 GHz. And at these low frequencies, this band provides excellent coverage. These bands of frequencies are often wont to provide coverage even within the interior parts.


On the opposite end, this mid-band provides moderate coverage, but due to the increased bandwidth, the info speed is going to be better than the previous generations. So, currently, in many countries, this mid-band is employed for the 5G deployment.


2. Millimeter-wave Band

True 5G experience and 5G speeds like1 Gbps are often achieved with the assistance of a millimeter-wave band. Due to its high frequency, this band provides very high bandwidth and it can provide a blazing fast internet to the end-user.


But since the millimeter waves can’t travel much distance, the coverage during this band is going to be limited to only tens of meters. Due to that, the cells during this millimeter-waveband are referred to as tiny cells.


Now, as these small cells provide limited coverage, so when mobile network operators want to supply really high-speed internet experience to the user then they have to put in even 100 or maybe thousands of such small cells within the particular area.


At the millimeter-wave frequencies, the dimensions of the antenna reduce drastically, And since the 5G radios consume very low power, these millimeter-wave radios are often even installed on the road lights. So, this is often all about the 5G frequency bands.


Technologies Behind 5G:

Let’s briefly see the various technologies behind 5G, which can enable the various services to the end-user.

MIMO Technology:

One of the most technologies behind 5G is a very large MIMO. So, here this MIMO stands for Multiple inputs, multiple outputs. Whereat both transmitters and therefore the receiver, multiple antennas are installed.


So, this MIMO isn’t a replacement concept. And even it had been utilized in the previous generation like within the fourth generation (4G) and even it’s utilized in the WiFi technology.


But within the case of the 5G, the size at which this idea is employed is very large. So, this massive MIMO will enable spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing. Spatial diversity means, using an equivalent frequency and therefore the time-slot, equivalent data are often sent over the various spatial paths. Which can improve reliability and it’ll also improve the info rate.


Then within the case of the spatial multiplexing, different data is shipped to the user over the various spatial paths. Which can increase the throughput to the end-user.


5g connectivity


Then another concept that’s possible to realize with this massive MIMO is that the multi-user MIMO. Where using the various spatial paths, different users are often served simultaneously over an equivalent frequency.


So, with the assistance of this multiuser massive MIMO, it’s possible to reinforce the cell capacity. That’s the number of users, which may be served simultaneously.


This massive MIMO also will enable the utilization of the beamforming technique. This beamforming is another key wireless technique, where a wireless signal is concentrated during a specific direction instead of broadcasting it during a wide area.


To know this beamforming, you’ll consider it as a difference between the flashlight and therefore the laser pointer. So, with the huge number of antennas within the massive MIMO system, this beamforming also will become 3D beamforming.


With this 3D beamforming, it’s possible to serve and track the user whenever they’re moving on the road. Or it’s possible to trace them whenever they’re moving from one floor to a different floor within the buildings. And having such a narrow and therefore the direct beam also will help in reducing the interference with the opposite beams.

So, these are the benefits of massive MIMO technology.


Network Slicing Technology

Then the subsequent important aspect is that network slicing. The network slicing may be a specific sort of virtualization, which allows the multiple logical networks to run on top of shared physical infrastructure. As discussed earlier, this 5G network should be ready to provide three sorts of basic services together.


That is the web of Things, enhanced mobile broadband, and really low latency communication. These different types of services would require a special quality of services also because of the different resources.


For example, within the Internet of Things, an outsized number of devices are connected together, but the throughput of every device is going to be very low. But to attach such an outsized number of devices, the network should be capable enough.


On the opposite end, if we see the case of very high-speed internet users, then their throughput is going to be very high. But the number of users is going to be but IoT devices. So, using this network slicing, all the similar sorts of services are often served together using the logical network.


Which will not only increase service reliability, but it’ll also increase the end-user experience. But of these different types of services are often provided to the end-user when the whole architecture is predicated on the 5G network.

Must Read: Best 5G Mobiles under Rs 20,000 in India

5G Deployment Options:

Most of the present 5G deployment is on top of the 4G architecture. So, basically, there are two 5G deployment options. They are

1. Non-standalone 5G

2. Standalone 5G


1. Non-Standalone 5G

In non-standalone 5G deployment, the core remains 4G core, but the bottom station or the new radios are the 5G based. During this non-standalone 5G, the 5G radio is going to be wont to provide fast data to the end-user. Except for the control and therefore the signaling, still, the 4G architecture is going to be used.


So, currently, most of the 5G deployment which goes within the world is predicated on this non-standalone 5G. Within the first phase of the 5G deployment, the main target is to supply faster internet speed to the end-users.

The advantage of this non-standalone 5G is that the prevailing 4G infrastructure is often used for the 5G deployment.


5G technology


2. Standalone 5G

But truth potential of the 5G is often experienced only within the standalone 5G. Where the core is predicated on the 5G architecture, and therefore the new radios which are utilized in the 5G deployment are supported the millimeter-wave frequencies.


This network slicing and everyone other low-latency services are often provided to the end-user when the core is an additional 5G core. So, gradually, the mobile network operator will move towards the standalone 5G, but it’ll take a while.


Even within the counties, where this 5G deployment goes on, it’ll take a while to experience truth 5G features. So, that’s all about the 5G deployment.

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